Medical malpractice occurs when a patient is harmed by a doctor (or other medical professional) who fails to competently perform his or her medical duties. You need to know the rules about medical malpractice — from when you must bring your lawsuit to whether you must notify the doctor ahead of time.
Common Types of Medical Malpractice
A wide variety of situations can lead to a medical malpractice claim — from a doctor leaving a sponge in a patient’s stomach during an operation to failing to tell a patient that a prescribed drug might cause heart failure. Most medical malpractice claims fall into one of these categories:
Failure to diagnose. If a competent doctor would have discovered the patient’s illness or made a different diagnosis, which in turn would have led to a better outcome than the one actually achieved, then the patient may have a viable medical malpractice claim.
Improper treatment. If a doctor treats the patient in a way that no other competent doctor would, the patient could have a medical malpractice claim. In a similar vein, it may also be malpractice if the doctor selects the appropriate treatment but administers it incompetently.
Failure to warn a patient of known risks. Doctors have a duty to warn patients of known risks of a procedure or course of treatment — this is known as the duty of informed consent. If a patient, once properly informed of possible risks, would have elected not to go through with the procedure, the doctor may be liable for medical malpractice if the patient is injured by the procedure (in a way that the doctor should have warned could happen).
Special Requirements in Medical Malpractice Cases
Medical malpractice cases must be brought soon after the injury. In Massachusetts, you must bring a medical malpractice claim within three years. The first part of the statute of limitations is the standard deadline, which gives victims of medical malpractice three years to go to Massachusetts civil court and file a lawsuit after the malpractice occurred. (The time period in which you must bring the lawsuit is called the “statute of limitations.”) If you don’t file the lawsuit within the specified period of time, the court will dismiss the case regardless of the facts.
Expert testimony is required. Expert opinions are often a crucial feature of the patient’s case. A qualified expert is usually required at trial. In a very limited number of circumstances, expert testimony is not required, such as when a surgical towel is left inside the patient after a surgery.
Do You Have a Case?
To prove that medical malpractice occurred, you must be able to show all of these things:
- physical pain
- mental anguish
- additional medical bills, and
- lost work and lost earning capacity.